The applicability of the Quint-Viallard conductivity equation to the representation of electrical conductivities in mixed solvents is examined. The concept of the modified Walden product is introduced, and the benefits compared with the ordinary Walden product are discussed. The universal curve of limiting conductances for all electrolytes (or for all ions) in a given pair of solvents is introduced and examined in a number of mixtures which include methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, tert-butyl alcohol, 1,4-dioxane, N,N-dimethylformamide, sulfolane, tetrahydrofuran, and ethylene carbonate with water. Also examined are nonaqueous mixtures of acetone-ethanol, acetone-1-propanol, dimethyl sulfoxide-propylene carbonate, acetonitrile-methanol, acetonitrile-carbon tetrachloride, and acetonitrile-propylene carbonate. Many electrolytes were involved in the evaluation of the universal curves, but the majority are alkali-metal halides, tetraalkylammonium halides, tetraalkylammonium tetraphenylborides, and potassium xanthates (inorganic and organic acids are treated separately). If in a given mixed solvent system the limiting conductance of electrolyte is unknown, the universal curve permits estimating its value and gives an indication about the quality of performed conductivity measurements. The existence of universal curves of limiting conductances indicates that the properties of electrolytes in pure solvents are, to a great extent, preserved also in the mixture of solvents due to the simple dilution effect.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry