TY - JOUR

T1 - Local scale-invariance breaking in the standard model by two-measure theory

AU - Guendelman, Eduardo I.

AU - Nishino, Hitoshi

AU - Rajpoot, Subhash

N1 - Funding Information:
We gratefully acknowledge the referee of this paper for constructive suggestions. S. R. was partially supported by a sabbatical leave from CSULB and acknowledges hospitality at Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel, where a part of the work was carried out. E. G. gratefully acknowledges the hospitality at CSULB.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 American Physical Society.

PY - 2018/9/18

Y1 - 2018/9/18

N2 - We introduce Weyl's scale invariance as additional local symmetry in the standard model of electroweak interactions. Under this, the gauge symmetry of the standard model now is SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1)×Ũ(1), where Ũ(1) is for local scale invariance, and its gauge boson is called the Weylon. Also introduced are two new scalars σ1 and σ2 with the common scaling weight -1. The mechanism for spontaneous breaking of scale invariance is invoked by coupling σ2 to a metric-independent measure defined in terms of an additional four scalars φI(I=1,2,3,4). Weyl's scale invariance is now implemented by combining it with internal diffeomorphisms of the four scalars φi. We show that once local scale invariance is broken, the phenomenon (a) generates Newton's gravitational constant GN and (b) triggers spontaneous symmetry breaking in the conventional manner resulting in masses for the conventional fermions and bosons. The scale at which Weyl's scale symmetry breaks is of order Planck mass. If right-handed neutrinos are also introduced, their absence at present energy scales is attributed to their mass being tied to the scale at which scale invariance breaks. New C- and CP-violating effects can also be induced by mixing the Weylon with the hypercharge gauge boson of the standard model.

AB - We introduce Weyl's scale invariance as additional local symmetry in the standard model of electroweak interactions. Under this, the gauge symmetry of the standard model now is SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1)×Ũ(1), where Ũ(1) is for local scale invariance, and its gauge boson is called the Weylon. Also introduced are two new scalars σ1 and σ2 with the common scaling weight -1. The mechanism for spontaneous breaking of scale invariance is invoked by coupling σ2 to a metric-independent measure defined in terms of an additional four scalars φI(I=1,2,3,4). Weyl's scale invariance is now implemented by combining it with internal diffeomorphisms of the four scalars φi. We show that once local scale invariance is broken, the phenomenon (a) generates Newton's gravitational constant GN and (b) triggers spontaneous symmetry breaking in the conventional manner resulting in masses for the conventional fermions and bosons. The scale at which Weyl's scale symmetry breaks is of order Planck mass. If right-handed neutrinos are also introduced, their absence at present energy scales is attributed to their mass being tied to the scale at which scale invariance breaks. New C- and CP-violating effects can also be induced by mixing the Weylon with the hypercharge gauge boson of the standard model.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85054530399&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.98.055022

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.98.055022

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85054530399

VL - 98

JO - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

JF - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

SN - 1550-7998

IS - 5

M1 - 055022

ER -