Objective: To assess whether delivery of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk of long-term cardiovascular offspring hospitalizations compared to SGA neonates born to mothers without GDM. Study design: This is a population-based retrospective cohort study. The study group was SGA offspring born to mothers with GDM (n = 259), while the control group was SGA offspring born to mothers without GDM (n = 9053). The main factor evaluated was offspring cardiovascular hospitalizations up to the age of 18 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to estimate cumulative incidence of cardiovascular hospitalizations. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for cardiovascular hospitalizations. Results: SGA children born to mothers with GDM had significantly higher rates of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations (1.9% vs. 0.7%, p =.026). A Kaplan-Meier survival curve demonstrated that SGA children born to GDM mothers had a higher cumulative incidence of cardiovascular hospitalizations (log-rank p =.037). The Cox regression model, while controlling for confounders, demonstrated that delivery of SGA neonates to mothers with GDM is independently associated with long-term cardiovascular offspring hospitalizations (adjusted HR =2.6; 95% CI 1.02–6.55 p =.045). Conclusion: Delivery of SGA neonates born to mothers with GDM is independently associated with long-term cardiovascular offspring hospitalizations.
- gestational diabetes mellitus
- long-term cardiovascular hospitalizations
- small for gestational age
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Obstetrics and Gynecology