Low level formation controls for a group of quadrotors with model uncertainties

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2 Scopus citations


The article proposes low-level control schemes for a group of quadrotors with highly nonlinear uncertain models in formation flights. The paper suggests control strategies for formation flights in a 3D space. The concepts of flat system and virtual formation play important roles in the current approach. We assume that accurate information needed to control a quadrotor in formation flights is available to the control system. Despite of system uncertainties the control law ensures that the error of the attitude subsystem relative to a required reference attitude converges exponentially to zero. Regarding the translational uncertain subsystem the solutions of the associated error dynamics are ultimately bounded and the ultimate boundedness of the error between the actual trajectory and the desired one in the flying formation can be guaranteed. The control scheme allows formation splitting and merging and formation switching in flight. Simulation results and discussions conclude the paper.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1534-1546
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Control
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2 Jul 2020


  • Quadrotor helicopter
  • formation flight in 3D
  • model uncertainties
  • rigid formation
  • string-like formation
  • virtual formation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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