Luminescent and structural characteristics of SiO2 layers exposed to double implantation by Si+ and C+ ions in order to synthesize nanosized silicon carbide inclusions have been investigated by the photoluminescence, electron spin resonance, transmission electron microscopy, and electron spectroscopy methods. It is shown that the irradiation of SiO2 layers containing preliminary synthesized silicon nanocrystals by carbon ions is accompanied by quenching the nanocrystal-related photoluminescence at 700-750 nm and by the enhancement of light emission from oxygen-deficient centers in oxide in the range of 350-700 nm. Subsequent annealing at 1000 or 1100°C results in the healing of defects and, correspondingly, in the weakening of the related photoluminescence peaks and also recovers in part the photoluminescence of silicon nanocrystals if the carbon dose is less than the silicon dose and results in the intensive white luminescence if the carbon and silicon doses are equal. This luminescence is characterized by three bands at ~400, ~500, and ~625 nm, which are related to the SiC, C, and Si phase inclusions, respectively. The presence of these phases has been confirmed by electron spectroscopy, the carbon precipitates have the sp3 bond hybridization. The nanosized amorphous inclusions in the Si+ + C+ implanted and annealed SiO2 layer have been revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.