Lysine methylation, catalyzed by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs), is a central post-translational modification regulating many signaling pathways. It has direct and indirect effects on chromatin structure and transcription. Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of PKMT activity has a fundamental impact on the development of many pathologies. While most of these works involve in-depth analysis of methylation events in the context of histones, in recent years, it has become evident that methylation of non-histone proteins also plays a pivotal role in cell processes. This review highlights the importance of non-histone methylation, with focus on methylation events taking place in the nucleus. Known experimental platforms which were developed to identify new methylation events, as well as examples of specific lysine methylation signaling events which regulate key transcription factors, are presented. In addition, the role of these methylation events in normal and disease states is emphasized.
- Lysine methylation
- Methylation signaling
- Non-histone methylation
- Post-translational modifications (PTMs)
- Protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs)