Given an n-dimensional Cr-diffeomorphism g, its renormalized iteration is an iteration of g, restricted to a certain n-dimensional ball and taken in some Cr-coordinates in which the ball acquires radius 1. We show that for any r ≥ 1 the renormalized iterations of Cr-close to identity maps of an n-dimensional unit ball Bn (n ≥ 2) form a residual set among all orientation-preserving Cr-diffeomorphisms Bn→ Rn. In other words, any generic n-dimensional dynamical phenomenon can be obtained by iterations of Cr-close to identity maps, with the same dimension of the phase space. As an application, we show that any Cr-generic two-dimensional map that belongs to the Newhouse domain (i.e., it has a so-called wild hyperbolic set, so it is not uniformly-hyperbolic, nor uniformly partially-hyperbolic) and that neither contracts, nor expands areas, is Cr-universal in the sense that its iterations, after an appropriate coordinate transformation, Cr-approximate every orientation-preserving two-dimensional diffeomorphism arbitrarily well. In particular, every such universal map has an infinite set of coexisting hyperbolic attractors and repellers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Mathematical Physics