Measurement and analysis of individualized care inventory responses comparing long-term care nurses and care aides

Norm O'Rourke, Neena L. Chappell, Sienna Caspar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Purpose: Motivating and enabling formal caregivers to provide individualized resident care has become an increasingly important objective in long-term care (LTC) facilities. The current study set out to examine the structure of responses to the individualized care inventory (ICI). Design and Methods: Samples of 242 registered nurses (RNs)/licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and 326 care aides were recruited from 54 LTC facilities in 3 of 5 British Columbia health authorities. Baseline confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models were computed separately for RNs/LPNs and care aides; invariance analyses were next undertaken to compare these CFA models. Results: For both RNs/LPNs and care aides, support was found for a 4-factor model of ICI responses mapping onto a higher order individualized care (IC) construct. This model was largely equivalent between formal caregiver groups, although the relative contribution of certain first-order factors differed between the two. Of further note, both groups appear to interpret and respond to 31 of 35 ICI items in a similar manner. Implications: The results of this study provide further support for the psychometric properties of ICI responses. Although further research is required, the ICI appears to be an appropriate self-report measure. This instrument may be used by researchers, policymakers, administrators, and practitioners alike to assess strengths as well as areas for improving the delivery of IC to LTC residents by formal caregivers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)839-846
Number of pages8
JournalThe Gerontologist
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Dementia care
  • Formal caregivers
  • Individualized care
  • Long-term care
  • Scale reliability
  • Scale validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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