Endosulfan is a highly toxic chlorinated organic compound that has widely been used throughout the world as a pesticide. Commercial endosulfan is a mixture of two stereoisomers: α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan, in a ratio of 7:3. Due to its recalcitrant nature, it is highly persistent in the environment and has been included in the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by Stockholm Convention in 2011. Further, high residual levels of endosulfan and their metabolites have gradually built up in contaminated environmental matrices at the point of application in all three phases of soil, water, and air. In addition, numerous studies have reported that due to its high chemical stability, semi-volatile, and hydrophobic nature, endosulfan contamination is frequently found in the environment at considerable distances from the point of its original application. Due to the high toxicity to humans, its application has been discontinued in most countries including India. However, the issues of legacy contamination still persist. The partitioning of endosulfan and its metabolites complicates their accurate quantification in the environment and requires complex analytical procedure as well as sophisticated instrumentation. This chapter provides a detailed review of available detection protocols for endosulfan, their advantages, and limitations. Further, the chapter also reviews the existing efforts for the removal of this persistent compound from a variety of environmental matrices.