Measuring the effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and antibiotic resistance: The Palestinian-Israeli Collaborative Research (PICR)

PICR study groupa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The Palestinian-Israeli Collaborative Research (PICR) cross-conflict setting provided a unique opportunity to study overall and indirect effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), in two closely related Palestinian populations governed by two distinct health authorities with distinct vaccination policies. Here, PCV7 effects on pneumococcal carriage, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance are reported. Methods: Annual cross-sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage were performed during 2009-2011 among Palestinian children (≤5 years) (a) under Palestinian-Authority (PA) health policy (Ramallah, Nablus and Bethlehem), where PCV7 was unlicensed (b) under Israeli health policy (East-Jerusalem (EJ)) where PCV7 was rapidly implemented from July 2009. Clinical data were collected, pneumococci identified and characterized for antibiotic susceptibilities and serotype. Analyses included multivariate logistic models with an interaction term for PCV7-effect. Results: Altogether, 2755 children from PA (n= 1772) and EJ (n= 983) were enrolled, of which ~30% were pneumococcal carriers. While overall carriage was not affected by vaccination policy, carriage of vaccine-type (VT7) strains decreased from 52% to 22% (p< 0.001) in EJ, where PCV was implemented, but not in PA. This was accompanied by an increase in non-VT13 strains from 34% to 65% (p< 0.001) in EJ, but not in PA. Furthermore, within two years post-PCV7 introduction, proportion of multi-drug resistant strains, which was initially 23% in both populations, decreased significantly in EJ, to 10%, while simultaneously it increased in PA to 33% (p< 0.001). Similar trends were observed for resistance to most antibiotic groups. The proportion of resistant isolates among non-VT13 strains did not change during the study period. Conclusions: The unique study design distinguishes secular and seasonal effects from true vaccine effects. While PCV7 did not affect overall pneumococcal carriage rate, VT7 strains, many of which were antibiotic resistant decreased and were replaced by non-VT13 strains, which were mostly not antibiotic resistant, resulting in a net decrease in antibiotic resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1021-1026
Number of pages6
JournalVaccine
Volume33
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 18 Feb 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Antibiotic resistance
  • PCV7 effects
  • Pneumococcal carriage
  • Population-based study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology (all)
  • Veterinary (all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Measuring the effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and antibiotic resistance: The Palestinian-Israeli Collaborative Research (PICR)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this