The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a fundamental tool for assessing the performance of imaging systems. It has been applied to a range of capture and output devices, including printers and even the media itself. In this paper, we consider the problem of measuring the MTF of image capture devices. We analyze the factors that limit the MTF of a capture device. Then, we examine three different approaches to this task based, respectively, on a slant-edge target, a sinewave target, and a grill pattern. We review the mathematical relationship between the three different methods, and discuss their comparative advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we present experimental results for MTF measurement with a number of different commercially available image capture devices that are specifically designed for capture of 2D reflection or transmission copy. These include camera-based systems, flat-bed scanners, and a drum scanner.