The arthropod cuticle may be seen as a multifunctional material displaying a wide range of physical properties. The materials properties of the cuticle are brought about by compositional and structural gradients at multiple hierarchical levels. In the following chapter we first discuss the main components of the cuticle, namely, chitin, proteins, water, mineral and tanning agents and their relevance in determining the mechanical properties of the cuticle. We then describe the hierarchical organization of the cuticle and how it contributes to tuning the mechanical properties of the material. Finally we show several examples of cuticular structures with increasing structural complexity to exemplify the discussed principles.