Mechanism of ischemic mitral regurgitation with segmental left ventricular dysfunction: Three-dimensional echocardiographic studies in models of acute and chronic progressive regurgitation

Yutaka Otsuji, Mark D. Handschumacher, Noah Liel-Cohen, Hiroaki Tanabe, Leng Jiang, Ehud Schwammenthal, J. Luis Guerrero, Lori A. Nicholls, Gus J. Vlahakes, Robert A. Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

272 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to separate proposed mechanisms for segmental ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR), including left ventricular (LV) dysfunction versus geometric distortion by LV dilation, using models of acute and chronic segmental ischemic LV dysfunction evaluated by three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. BACKGROUND: Dysfunction and dilation - both mechanisms with practical therapeutic implications - are difficult to separate in patients. METHODS: In seven dogs with acute left circumflex (LCX) coronary ligation, LV expansion was initially restricted and then permitted to occur. In seven sheep with LCX branch ligation, LV expansion was also initially limited but became prominent with remodeling over eight weeks. Three-dimensional echo reconstruction quantified mitral apparatus geometry and MR volume. RESULTS: In the acute model, despite LV dysfunction with ejection fraction = 23 ± 8%, MR was initially trace with limited LV dilation, but it became moderate with subsequent prominent dilation. In the chronic model, MR was also initially trace, but it became moderate over eight weeks as the LV dilated and changed shape. In both models, the only independent predictor of MR volume was increased tethering distance from the papillary muscles (PMs) to the anterior annulus, especially medial and posterior shift of the ischemic medial PM, measured by 3D reconstruction (r2 = 0.75 and 0.86, respectively). Mitral regurgitation volume did not correlate with LV ejection fraction or dP/dt. CONCLUSIONS: Segmental ischemic LV contractile dysfunction without dilation, even in the PM territory, fails to produce important MR. The development of MR relates strongly to changes in the 3D geometry of the mitral apparatus, with implications for approaches to restore a more favorable configuration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)641-648
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume37
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 22 Feb 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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