This article overviews the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of membrane integrity tests with emphasis on their sensitivity, reliability, and feasibility for various types of membranes. The 10 integrity tests presented are grouped into four categories: pressure-based, marker-based, visualization, and acoustic sensing. The methods detailed here include pressure and vacuum decay tests (PDT/VDT), diffuse air flow (DAF), bubble point, TOC profiling, and sonic sensing currently used in industry.
- integrity test
- pressure and vacuum decay tests (PDT/VDT)
- diffuse air flow (DAF)
- TOC profiling
- bubble point