Methemoglobinemia screening and treatment in tank warfare survivors: A case series

Shahar Negev, Shaun Gruenbaum, Amit Frenkel, Alexander Zlotnik, Ohad Gabay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Methemoglobinemia, characterized by the conversion of functional hemoglobin to methemoglobin, can significantly impede tissue oxygenation. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of methemoglobinemia are critical to optimizing clinical outcomes. Although the underlying etiology of methemoglobinemia is often attributed to a medication reaction or chemical exposure, its association with battlefield trauma remains underexplored. This case series explores the presence of methemoglobinemia in nine soldiers evacuated from tanks targeted by explosives, shedding new light on screening needs and treatment strategies. Cases description: Nine combat trauma patients with methemoglobinemia were admitted to Soroka Medical Center over a two-month period. Detailed case descriptions illustrate the diverse presentations and treatment responses. Notably, the administration of methylene blue resulted in rapid methemoglobin reductions and an improvement in oxygenation without any observed side effects. Discussion: This series highlights an unexpected consequence of an explosion within an armored fighting vehicle and the challenges related to standard pulse oximetry interpretation and accuracy in the presence of methemoglobinemia, emphasizing the need for vigilant monitoring and co-oximetry utilization. Additionally, the coexistence of carboxyhemoglobin further warrants attention due to its synergistic and deleterious effects on oxygen delivery. Collaborative efforts with military authorities should aim to explore the underlying mechanisms associated with trauma and methemoglobinemia and optimize battlefield care. Conclusion: This case series underscores the significance of methemoglobinemia screening in combat trauma patients, and advocates for systematic co-oximetry utilization and methylene blue availability in combat zones. Early detection and intervention of methemoglobinemia in combat soldiers are often difficult in the context of battlefield injuries but are necessary to mitigate the potentially fatal consequences of this condition.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Emergency Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2024

Keywords

  • Combat trauma
  • Methemoglobinemia
  • Tank warfare

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

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