MICAL: Mutual Information-Based CNN-Aided Learned Factor Graphs for Seizure Detection From EEG Signals

Bahareh Salafian, Eyal Fishel Ben-Knaan, Nir Shlezinger, Sandrine De Ribaupierre, Nariman Farsad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We develop a hybrid model-based data-driven seizure detection algorithm called Mutual Information-based CNN-Aided Learned factor graphs (MICAL) for detection of eclectic seizures from EEG signals. Our proposed method contains three main components: a neural mutual information (MI) estimator, 1D convolutional neural network (CNN), and factor graph inference. Since during seizure the electrical activity in one or more regions in the brain becomes correlated, we use neural MI estimators to measure inter-channel statistical dependence. We also design a 1D CNN to extract additional features from raw EEG signals. Since the soft estimates obtained as the combined features from the neural MI estimator and the CNN do not capture the temporal correlation between different EEG blocks, we use them not as estimates of the seizure state, but to compute the function nodes of a factor graph. The resulting factor graphs allows structured inference which exploits the temporal correlation for further improving the detection performance. On public CHB-MIT database, We conduct three evaluation approaches using the public CHB-MIT database, including 6-fold leave-four-patients-out cross-validation, all patient training; and per patient training. Our evaluations systematically demonstrate the impact of each element in MICAL through a complete ablation study and measuring six performance metrics. It is shown that the proposed method obtains state-of-the-art performance specifically in 6-fold leave-four-patients-out cross-validation and all patient training, demonstrating a superior generalizability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23085-23096
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • EEG
  • Epilepsy
  • convolutional neural network
  • deep learning
  • factor graphs
  • mutual information
  • neural mutual information estimator
  • seizure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering (all)
  • Materials Science (all)
  • Computer Science (all)


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