Mitigation of hazards and risks of emerging pollutants through innovative treatment techniques of post methanated distillery effluent - A review

Sonam Tripathi, Diane Purchase, Ram Chandra, Ashok Kumar Nadda, Preeti Chaturvedi Bhargava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Distillery wastewater has high biological and chemical oxygen demand and requires additional treatment before it can be safely discharged into receiving water. It is usually processed through a biomethanation digester and the end product is the post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE). Research have shown that PMDE released by molasses-based distilleries is a hazardous effluent that can cause harm to the biota and the environment; it contains elevated amount of total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and excess levels of persistent organic compounds (POPs), heavy metals, phenolic compounds, and salts. The practice of wastewater reuse for irrigation in many water scarce countries necessitates the proper treatment of PMDE before it is discharged into receiving water. Convention methods have been in practice for decades, but innovative technologies are needed to enhance the efficiency of PMDE treatment. Advance physical treatment such as membrane separation technology using graphene, ion-exchange and ultrafiltration membranes; chemical treatment such as advanced oxidation methods, electrocoagulation and photocatalytic technologies; biological treatment such as microbial and enzymatic treatment; and hybrid treatment such as microbial-fuel cell (MFC), genetically modified organisms (GMO) and constructed wetland technologies, are promising new methods to improve the quality of PMDE. This review provides insight into current accomplishments evaluates their suitability and discusses future developments in the detoxification of PMDE. The consolidated knowledge will help to develop a better management for the safe disposal and the reuse of PMDE wastewater.

Original languageEnglish
Article number134586
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Advanced oxidation
  • Catalysis
  • Distillery industry
  • Innovative treatment techniques
  • Membrane filters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • General Chemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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