Moisture Effect on Asphalt Dielectric Permittivity: Simulating, Sensitivity Analysis and Experimental Validation

Alan Frid, Vladimir Frid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The quality of asphalt pavement (HMA) is often assessed by its dielectric permittivity, e.g., using ground-penetrating radar technology. The mostly employed relationships were developed for dry HMA pavement as follows: Complex Refractive Index Model (CRIM), Bottcher, Rayleigh, and Al-Qadi–Lahouar–Leng models (so-called ALL model), while the relationships for the estimation of wet HMA properties are empiric and not consistent with those for dry HMA mixtures. The article presents the results of the development and analysis of novel relationships between the values of dielectric permittivity and the mechanical characteristics of wet asphalt. It is shown that the new relationships are the general consistent cases of the expressions previously developed for dry HMA. The new expressions for the Rayleigh and ALL models are shown providing close estimates for the value of moisture content in the range of porosity and degree of water saturation: 0–0.12 and 0–1, respectively, and in the wide range of aggregate specific gravity (2.5–2.9), the binder content (0.04–0.08), the dielectric permittivity of aggregate (6–11), and the maximum specific gravity (2.5–2.9). Since the ALL model is an implicit function, in which the dielectric permittivity variable cannot be extracted, the direct problem (to calculate the dielectric constant value from density/specific gravity and porosity value) can be solved numerically while the inverse problem can be solved algebraically. The newly developed expression for the Rayleigh model (for wet asphalt) can be used for the estimation of dielectric permittivity based on expected values of porosity and density, and vice versa, and hence it is simpler for using.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
StateAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2023


  • Dielectric permittivity
  • Hot-mix asphalt (HMA)
  • Moisture effect
  • Wet HMA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials


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