Molecular processes in an electrochemical clozapine sensor

Thomas E. Winkler, Sarah L. Lederer, Eunkyoung Kim, Hadar Ben-Yoav, Deanna L. Kelly, Gregory F. Payne, Reza Ghodssi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Selectivity presents a crucial challenge in direct electrochemical sensing. One example is schizophrenia treatment monitoring of the redox-active antipsychotic clozapine. To accurately assess efficacy, differentiation from its metabolite norclozapine-similar in structure and redox potential-is critical. Here, the authors leverage biomaterials integration to study, and effect changes in, diffusion and electron transfer kinetics of these compounds. Specifically, the authors employ a catechol-modified chitosan film, which the authors have previously presented as the first electrochemical detection mechanism capable of quantifying clozapine directly in clinical serum. A key finding in our present work is differing dynamics between clozapine and norclozapine once the authors interface the electrodes with chitosan-based biomaterial films. These additional dimensions of redox information can thus enable selective sensing of largely analogous small molecules.

Original languageEnglish
Article number02B401
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • General Materials Science
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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