Motor symptoms of schizophrenia: Is tardive dyskinesia a symptom or side effect? A modern treatment

Vladimir Lerner, Chanoch Miodownik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Abnormal involuntary dyskinetic movements in schizophrenia patients have been documented for more than 140 years. Clinicians should distinguish between two kinds of disturbances-spontaneous dyskinetic movements and movements induced by psychotropic medications-which may look familiar clinically. As a modern term, tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially permanent neurological hyperkinetic movement disorder that occurs after months or years of taking psychotropic drugs. Several distinct forms of TD exist, specifically tardive akathisia, tardive blepharospasm, tardive dystonia, tardive gait, tardive myoclonus, tardive tremor, and tardive tics, and they have different pathophysiologies and treatment. The pathogenesis of TD remains unclear, and the pathophysiology is complex and multifactorial. Moreover, there is solid evidence of a genetic predisposition to TD. This article summarizes recent relevant publications concerning TD and the most recent studies regarding treatment of this disorder with antioxidative agents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-304
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Psychiatry Reports
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2011


  • Antioxidants
  • Antipsychotics
  • First-generation antipsychotics
  • Motor symptom
  • Psychotropic agents
  • Schizoaffective disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Second-generation antipsychotics
  • Side effect
  • Symptoms
  • Tardive dyskinesia
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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