MultiplexNet: Towards Fully Satisfied Logical Constraints in Neural Networks.

Nick Hoernle, Rafael-Michael Karampatsis, Vaishak Belle, Kobi Gal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We propose a novel way to incorporate expert knowledge into the training of deep neural networks. Many approaches encode domain constraints directly into the network architecture, requiring non-trivial or domain-specific engineering. In contrast, our approach, called MultiplexNet, represents domain knowledge as a quantifier-free logical formula in disjunctive normal form (DNF) which is easy to encode and to elicit from human experts. It introduces a latent Categorical variable that learns to choose which constraint term optimizes the error function of the network and it compiles the constraints directly into the output of existing learning algorithms. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach empirically on several classical deep learning tasks, such as density estimation and classification in both supervised and unsupervised settings where prior knowledge about the domains was expressed as logical constraints. Our results show that the MultiplexNet approach learned to approximate unknown distributions well, often requiring fewer data samples than the alternative approaches. In some cases, MultiplexNet finds better solutions than the baselines; or solutions that could not be achieved with the alternative approaches. Our contribution is in encoding domain knowledge in a way that facilitates inference. We specifically focus on quantifier-free logical formulae that are specified over the output domain of a network. We show that this approach is both efficient and general; and critically, our approach guarantees 100% constraint satisfaction in a network's output.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5700-5709
JournalArtificial Intelligence
Issue number5
StatePublished - 28 Jun 2022


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