Mutual Composition Transformations Among 2D/3D Organolead Halide Perovskites and Mechanisms Behind

Jiandong Wang, Xiang Yao, Wen Jing Xiao, Shuhui Wang, Guiying Xu, Xue Qiang Chen, Si Cheng Wu, Iris Visoly-Fisher, Eugene A. Katz, Yaowen Li, Jian Lin, Wei Shi Li, Yongfang Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Post-deposition processing of organolead halide films, by exposure to alkyl amine vapor and composition transformation, is an attractive approach for the formation of high-quality and large-scale perovskite films of desired compositions. However, the generalization of such composition transformation requires further understanding of the mechanism of the process. In this work MAPbI3, BA2PbI4, and OA2PbI4 (MA+: CH3NH3 +, BA+: C4H9NH3 +, and OA+: C8H17NH3 +) are chosen as typical representatives of 3D and 2D organolead halide perovskites, and their transformations are systematically studied. It is found that the transformation can universally take place among these organolead iodides, irrespective of either from 3D to 2D or from 2D to 3D form. The important intermediates in these transformations have been identified to be alkyl amine-bound lead iodides of well-defined chemical composition and crystalline nature in solid state. Furthermore, such intermediates have unexpected good solubility in alcohol, enabling the use of ethanol as a processing solvent for fabrication of high-quality perovskite films and solar cells. The so-prepared perovskite solar cells display an average power conversion efficiency of 14.08% with the best one of 15.79%. These findings not only gain new insights on perovskite transformation mechanism, but also lead to developing an environmentally benign processing method for perovskite films and devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1800125
JournalSolar RRL
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2018


  • composition transformation
  • green processing
  • organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites
  • organolead halides
  • perovskite solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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