MXene-Nanoflakes-Enabled All-Optical Nonlinear Activation Function for On-Chip Photonic Deep Neural Networks

Adir Hazan, Barak Ratzker, Danzhen Zhang, Aviad Katiyi, Maxim Sokol, Yury Gogotsi, Alina Karabchevsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXene) are promising material platforms for on-chip neural networks owing to their nonlinear saturable absorption effect. The localized surface plasmon resonances in metallic MXene nanoflakes may play an important role in enhancing the electromagnetic absorption; however, their contribution is not determined due to the lack of a precise understanding of its localized surface plasmon behavior. Here, a saturable absorber made of MXene thin film and a silicon waveguide with MXene flakes overlayer are developed to perform neuromorphic tasks. The proposed configurations are reconfigurable and can therefore be adjusted for various applications without the need to modify the physical structure of the proposed MXene-based activator configurations via tuning the wavelength of operation. The capability and feasibility of the obtained results of machine-learning applications are confirmed via handwritten digit classification task, with near 99% accuracy. These findings can guide the design of advanced ultrathin saturable absorption materials on a chip for a broad range of applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2210216
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - 14 Jan 2023


  • MXenes
  • artificial intelligence
  • integrated photonics
  • silicon photonics
  • titanium carbide
  • waveguides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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