Nano-adjuvants as Effective Next-Generation Antimicrobial Agents

Tuyelee Das, Mimosa Ghorai, Uttpal Anand, Arabinda Ghosh, Potshangbam Nongdam, Mahipal S. Shekhawat, Devendra Kumar Pandey, Abhijit Dey

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Adaptive immunity is a feature peculiar to vertebrates which is responsible for defence against invading pathogens. It is a system that recognizes pathogenic antigens from a previous encounter and builds a robust immune response that neutralizes the pathogen. Vaccines are a perfect application of exploiting our adaptive immunity where pathogenic antigens are introduced into our body resulting in the generation of long-lived immune cells known as memory cells. These cells recognize pathogenic signatures upon infection and initiate the adaptive immune response. An essential component of a vaccine is an adjuvant which enhances the efficiency of an antigen to produce a robust immune response. The exact mechanisms behind adjuvant enhancement of immune response are not fully understood; thus, they have been referred to as ‘the immunologists’ dirty little secret’ – Janeway. Recent studies have shown that nano-adjuvants are very efficient immune regulators and double Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation might be the reason for their efficacy. Adjuvant development is emerging as an important trend in vaccine delivery, since a wide range of antigens that are not immunogenic need to be enhanced. This chapter aims to highlight the potential role of nanoparticles as nano-adjuvants and the recent developments made in this evolving field.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNanotechnology in the Life Sciences
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media B.V.
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022

Publication series

NameNanotechnology in the Life Sciences
ISSN (Print)2523-8027
ISSN (Electronic)2523-8035


  • Adjuvant
  • Nanoparticle
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)


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