The environmentally unsustainable growth of the world resulted in a polluted ecosystem. In recent years, nanomaterials and nanocomposites have shown their potentials for environmental remediation. Carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs), metal and metal oxide-based nanomaterials, and other nanocomposites have been used widely since the last decades. These nanomaterials and nanocomposites have shown their effectiveness through adsorption, reactive oxygen species generation through electro- and photocatalytic processes. This book focused on the recent development of the nanomaterials and nanocomposites for the pollution measurement and their control in water, air, and soil. The book comprises 12 chapters and has been incorporated carbon-based, metal-based, and metal–organic framework-based nanomaterials and nanocomposites for emerging contaminants (pharmaceuticals and personal care products) degradation, disinfection and other traditional pollutants degradation and removal. Overall, this book offers updated literature for researchers and academicians working in the field of environmental remediation by nanomaterials.