## Abstract

Given an unweighted undirected graph G = (V, E), and a pair of parameters ✏ > 0, = 1,2,..., a subgraph G0 = (V,H), H ✓ E, of G is a (1 + ✏,)-spanner (aka, a near- additive spanner) of G if for every u, v 2 V , dG0 (u, v) (1 + ✏)dG(u, v) + .

It was shown in [25] that for any n-vertex G as above, and any ✏ > 0 and = 1, 2, . . ., there exists a (1 + ✏, )-spanner G0 with O✏,(n1+1/) edges, with log !log 2 = EP = ✏ .

This bound remains state-of-the-art, and its dependence on ✏ (for the case of small ) was shown to be tight in [3].

Given a weighted undirected graph G = (V, E, !), and a pair of parameters ✏ > 0, =1,2,...,agraphG0 =(V,H,!0)isa(1+✏,)-hopset(aka,anear-exacthopset)ofGif

for every u, v 2 V, where d() 0 (u, v) stands for a -(hop)-bounded distance between u and v in the union graph dG(u,v)d() 0(u,v)(1+✏)dG(u,v), G[G 0 G[G

G[G. Itwasshownin[22]thatforanyn-vertexGand✏andasabove,thereexistsa (1 + ✏, )-hopset with O ̃(n1+1/) edges, with = EP.

Not only the two results of [25] and [22] are strikingly similar, but so are also their proof techniques. Moreover, Thorup-Zwick’s later construction of near-additive spanners [41] was also shown in [24, 29] to provide hopsets with analogous (to that of [41]) properties.

In this survey we explore this intriguing phenomenon, sketch the basic proof techniques used for these results, and highlight open questions.

It was shown in [25] that for any n-vertex G as above, and any ✏ > 0 and = 1, 2, . . ., there exists a (1 + ✏, )-spanner G0 with O✏,(n1+1/) edges, with log !log 2 = EP = ✏ .

This bound remains state-of-the-art, and its dependence on ✏ (for the case of small ) was shown to be tight in [3].

Given a weighted undirected graph G = (V, E, !), and a pair of parameters ✏ > 0, =1,2,...,agraphG0 =(V,H,!0)isa(1+✏,)-hopset(aka,anear-exacthopset)ofGif

for every u, v 2 V, where d() 0 (u, v) stands for a -(hop)-bounded distance between u and v in the union graph dG(u,v)d() 0(u,v)(1+✏)dG(u,v), G[G 0 G[G

G[G. Itwasshownin[22]thatforanyn-vertexGand✏andasabove,thereexistsa (1 + ✏, )-hopset with O ̃(n1+1/) edges, with = EP.

Not only the two results of [25] and [22] are strikingly similar, but so are also their proof techniques. Moreover, Thorup-Zwick’s later construction of near-additive spanners [41] was also shown in [24, 29] to provide hopsets with analogous (to that of [41]) properties.

In this survey we explore this intriguing phenomenon, sketch the basic proof techniques used for these results, and highlight open questions.

Original language | English |
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Journal | European association for theoretical computer science bulletin |

Volume | 130 |

State | Published - Feb 2020 |

## Keywords

- Computer Science - Data Structures and Algorithms