NMR-based leaf metabolic profiling of V. planifolia and three endemic Vanilla species from the Peruvian Amazon

Vanessa E. Leyva, Juan M. Lopez, Alvaro Zevallos-Ventura, Rodrigo Cabrera, Cristhian Cañari-Chumpitaz, David Toubiana, Helena Maruenda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The fruit of Vanilla planifolia is broadly preferred by the agroindustry and gourmet markets due to its refined flavor and aroma. Peruvian Vanilla has been proposed as a possible source for genetic improvement of existing Vanilla cultivars, but, little has been done to facilitate comprehensive studies of these and other Vanilla. Here, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic platform was developed to profile for the first time the leaves – organ known to accumulate vanillin putative precursors – of V. planifolia and those of Peruvian V. pompona, V. palmarum, and V. ribeiroi, with the aim to determine metabolic differences among them. Analysis of the NMR spectra allowed the identification of thirty-six metabolites, twenty-five of which were quantified. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test revealed that these metabolites changed significantly among species, whilst multivariate-analyses allowed the identification of malic and homocitric acids, together with two vanillin precursors, as relevant metabolic markers for species differentiation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number129365
JournalFood Chemistry
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol glucoside
  • Glucosides A and B
  • NMR metabolomics
  • Quantitative NMR
  • V. palmarum
  • V. planifolia
  • V. pompona
  • V. ribeiroi

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Food Science


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