Non-crop habitats in the landscape enhance spider diversity in wheat fields of a desert agroecosystem

Therese Pluess, Itai Opatovsky, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Yael Lubin, Martin H. Schmidt-Entling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations

Abstract

Spiders (Araneae) are an important group of generalist predators in arable land. In temperate climates, spiders recolonise cropland annually from the surrounding landscape. In arid climates however, irrigated crops and the surrounding landscape matrix offer sharply different habitat conditions and this might negatively affect spider migration into crops. We studied whether the spider fauna in desert crops is influenced by the surrounding landscape in a similar way to that found in temperate climates. Spiders were sampled with pitfall traps in 13 wheat fields (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Negev Desert (Israel). The fields were situated along a gradient from crop- to non-crop-dominated landscapes (1-72% non-crop habitats). Species richness of spiders in wheat fields increased with the percentage of non-crop habitats in the landscape. In addition, activity-densities of crab spiders (Thomisidae) and cobweb spiders (Theridiidae) were enhanced by high percentages of non-crop habitats in the surrounding landscape. Activity-densities of the dominant sheetweb spiders (Linyphiidae) showed no significant response to landscape composition. As the immigrant spider families employ different foraging strategies than the dominant sheetweb spiders, they functionally enriched the spider fauna in crops and potentially increase the range of prey types consumed by spiders. Thus, non-crop habitats can be expected to increase the potential for biological control by spiders in nearby crops.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-74
Number of pages7
JournalAgriculture, Ecosystems and Environment
Volume137
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Apr 2010

Keywords

  • Araneae
  • Arid climate
  • Ballooning
  • Ecosystem services
  • Foraging strategy
  • Generalist predators
  • Migration mode
  • Negev desert
  • Pest suppression
  • Spatial scale

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