Non-Singular Black Holes Interiors Need Physics Beyond the Standard Model

Ram Brustein, A. J.M. Medved

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The composition as well as the very existence of the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole (BH) remains at the forefront of interesting, open problems in fundamental physics. To address this issue, we turn to Hawking's “principle of ignorance”, which says that, for an observer with limited information about a physical system, all descriptions that are consistent with known physics are equally valid. We compare three different observers who view the BH from the outside and agree on the external Schwarzschild geometry. First, the modernist, who accepts the classical BH as the final state of gravitational collapse, the singularity theorems that underlie this premise and the central singularity that the theorems predict. The modernist is willing to describe matter in terms of quantum fields in curved space but insists on (semi)classical gravity. Second is the skeptic, who wishes to evade any singular behavior by finding a loophole to the singularity theorems within the realm of classical general relativity (GR). The third is a postmodernist who similarly wants to circumvent the singularity theorems but is willing to invoke exotic quantum physics in the gravitational and/or matter sector to do so. The postmodern view suggests that the uncertainty principle can stabilize a classically singular BH in a similar manner to the stabilization of the classically unstable hydrogen atom: Strong quantum effects in the matter and gravitational sectors resolve the would-be singularity over horizon-sized length scales. The postmodern picture then requires a significant departure from (semi)classical gravity, as well as some exotic matter beyond the standard model of particle physics (SM). We find that only the postmodern framework is consistent with what is known so far about BH physics and conclude that a valid description of the BH interior needs matter beyond the SM and gravitational physics beyond (semi)classical GR.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1900058
JournalFortschritte der Physik
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • hot strings
  • non-singular black holes
  • quantum black holes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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