Norm-referenced scoring system for the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire – Revised (BISQ-R)

Jodi A. Mindell, Russell A. Gould, Liat Tikotzy, Erin S. Leichman, Russel M. Walters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Objectives To develop an age-based norm-referenced scoring system for the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire – Revised (BISQ-R). Methods In sum, 33,835 submissions (data sample 1) of the expanded and revised BISQ-R by caregivers of infants and toddlers (1–36 months) were analyzed in the US via a publicly-available smartphone application, Johnson's® Bedtime®. Three subscales were created: Infant Sleep (IS; 5 items), Parent Perception (PP; 3 items), and Parent Behavior (PB; 11 items). The scoring algorithm was based on an age-based normative system, and each subscale was scored using a weighted average of items. Primary application of the scoring model was performed on a follow up set of 16,531 submissions (data sample 2). Secondary application was tested on an original web-based ecology study (data sample 3). Tertiary application was tested using previously published datasets consisting of a longitudinal study (data sample 4) and randomized control trial behavioral intervention study (data sample 5). Results Overall application of the scoring algorithm was confirmed across multiple samples. Each subscale (IS, PP, PB) and total score (T) is age referenced (scores range from 0 to 100). Cross-comparison between subscales across studies reveal consistent and convergent relationships. Conclusions The BISQ-R provides a comprehensive assessment of infant and toddler sleep patterns, as well as parent perception and parent behaviors that may contribute to sleep outcomes. The age-based norm-referenced scoring system is publicly available to be used by researchers and clinicians.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-114
Number of pages9
JournalSleep Medicine
StatePublished - 2019


  • Infants
  • Toddlers
  • Sleep
  • Brief infant sleep questionnaire
  • Revised (BISQ-R)


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