Numerical analysis of spray characterization of blends of hydrous ethanol with diesel and biodiesel

Vardelli Shanthan, Jiwak Suryawanshi, Rahul Tarodiya, Akshay Loyte, Yuvarajan Devarajan, Nandagopal Kaliappan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The spray characteristics of a fuel greatly influence the combustion as it affects the formation of an air–fuel mixture, which directly impacts the performance and emissions of the engine. This study investigates the physical injection spray characteristics of biofuels to optimize the engine operating parameters for their effective utilization. For the analysis of the spray characteristics of pure diesel (D100), 80% diesel—20% biodiesel (D80B20), 80% diesel—10% biodiesel—10% pure ethanol (D80B10E10), and 80% diesel—10% biodiesel—10% hydrous ethanol (D80B10HE10) are investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of a constant volume chamber under non-evaporative conditions is performed to conduct numerical analysis. The chamber pressure of 2 and 2.5 MPa and nozzle injection diameter of 0.126 mm, 0.15 mm, and 0.2 mm are considered to conduct the simulations. The variation in spray penetration length is analyzed and discussed for the injection of different fuel blends at different initial conditions. It is observed from numerical results that the high-density fuel blend D80B20 has a penetration length of 10.695% and 15.805% higher than pure diesel and D80B10HE10 blends, respectively. For pure diesel, with an increase in nozzle diameter from 0.126 mm to 0.15 mm and 0.2 mm, the penetration length is increased by 20% and 32%, respectively, and with an increase in pressure from 2 MPa to 2.5 MPa, penetration length is decreased by 14.62%. From this study, it can be concluded that biofuels like biodiesel and hydrous ethanol can be used with diesel in blended form over pure ethanol. Compared to pure ethanol, hydrous ethanol gives cost benefits and better spray characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5726
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Biodiesel
  • Ethanol
  • Injection pressure
  • Nozzle diameter
  • Penetration length
  • Spray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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