Observational study of diabetes management in type 1 diabetic school-age children during holiday versus school days

Zohar Landau, Yael Lebenthal, Mona Boaz, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) management requires year-round adherence to treatment regimen. Holidays may present a challenge towards achieving good metabolic control. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the effect of holidays on diabetes management of schoolchildren with T1D. Methods: Observational, case-crossover study of 45 schoolchildren, age range 7-19 years, mean 13.2 =3.4 years, followed in a pediatric diabetes clinic. Subjects were stratified by age [ < 12 years (n =21), > 12 years (n =24)] and treatment modality [insulin pump (n =29) or multiple daily injections (n =16)]. Data were downloaded from glucometers and insulin pumps during five non-weekend holidays and five subsequent school days. Results: The mean number of blood glucose (BG) readings was significantly lower (4.4 ± 1.9 vs. 4.8 ± 1.9, p < 0.01) and mean BG marginally higher (11.4 ± 2.7 vs. 10.7 ± 3.1 mmol/L, p =0.1) during holidays than during school days in the entire cohort. Children were significantly more adherent to diabetes management than adolescents as expressed by lower mean glycated hemoglobin level (7.7 ± 0.8% vs. 8.6 ± 1.4%, p < 0.05), more BG readings per day (p < 0.001) and lower mean BG on holidays (p < 0.05) and on schooldays (p < 0.01). In pump users, no difference in the mean number of boluses per day and mean insulin units per kilogram per day was observed between holidays and school days. Conclusions: The management of school-aged children with T1D during holidays was worse than during school days; these finding were more pronounced in adolescents. The diabetes team should be aware of suboptimal therapy during holidays and should consider intervention programs in attempts to educate patients accordingly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1083-1086
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number11-12
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Diabetes management
  • Holidays
  • Type 1 Diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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