Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome carries an increased lifetime risk for obstetric and thrombotic complications—a population-based study

Ariel Katherine Rhein, Anat Rabinovich, Ran Abuhasira, Shir Lubaton-Barshishat, Offer Erez

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) can present with either a thromboembolic event (thrombotic APS, TAPS) or an obstetric complication (obstetric APS, OAPS). Data on long-term complications in the different APS phenotypes are limited. Objectives: We aimed to compare obstetric history, antiphospholipid antibody profiles, obstetric and thromboembolic complications, and pregnancy outcomes between TAPS and OAPS. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included women who delivered singleton pregnancies between 1998 and 2020. One hundred sixteen thousand four hundred nine women were included, resulting in 320,455 deliveries. Among the included patients, 71 were diagnosed with APS, 49 were classified as OAPS, and 22 as TAPS. The demographics, obstetric, neonatal, and thrombotic outcomes were compared among TAPS, OAPS, and the general obstetric population. Results: OAPS patients had an increased risk of thrombotic events compared with the general obstetric population (odds ratio [OR] 18.0; 95% CI, 8.7-37.2). In pregnancies following the diagnosis of APS, despite standard antithrombotic treatment, OAPS patients exhibited an elevated risk of placenta-related and neonatal complications compared with the general obstetric population (late fetal loss [adjusted OR {aOR}, 15.3; 95% CI, 0.5-27.5], stillbirth [aOR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.2-15.4], placental abruption [aOR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.5-15.3], preeclampsia [aOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.5-7.7], fetal growth restriction [aOR, 4.3; 95% CI, 8.5-27.5], small for gestational age neonate [aOR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.4-6.6], and low Apgar scores [Apgar'1: aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-10.4; Apgar'5: aOR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.3-10.4]). TAPS patients exhibited increased risk of preeclampsia (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.2-8). Conclusion: OAPS patients exhibit a heightened risk of thrombotic events compared with the general obstetric population. Despite treatment, OAPS and TAPS still presented obstetric complications. These findings, after confirmation in prospective studies, need to be taken into consideration when planning the treatment approach for these patients.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number102430
    JournalResearch and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
    Volume8
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    StatePublished - 1 May 2024

    Keywords

    • antiphospholipid syndrome
    • fetal death
    • preeclampsia
    • pregnancy outcome
    • thrombosis

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Hematology

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