On-chip beam rotators, polarizers and adiabatic mode converters through low-loss waveguides with variable cross-sections

Bangshan Sun, Fyodor Morozko, Patrick S. Salter, Simon Moser, Zhikai Pong, Raj B. Patel, Ian A. Walmsley, Adir Hazan, Nicolas Barré, Alexander Jesacher, Julian Fells, Aviad Katiyi, Andrey Novitsky, Alina Karabchevsky, Martin J. Booth

Research output: Working paper/PreprintPreprint

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Photonics integrated circuitry would benefit considerably from the ability to arbitrarily control waveguide cross-sections with high precision and low loss, in order to provide more degrees of freedom in manipulating propagating light. Here, we report on a new optical-fibres-compatible glass waveguide by femtosecond laser writing, namely spherical phase induced multi-core waveguide (SPIM-WG), which addresses this challenging task with three dimensional on-chip light control. Precise deformation of cross-sections is achievable along the waveguide, with shapes and sizes finely controllable of high resolution in both horizontal and vertical transversal directions. We observed that these waveguides have high refractive index contrast of 0.017, low propagation loss of 0.14 dB/cm, and very low coupling loss of 0.19 dB coupled from a single mode fibre. SPIM-WG devices were easily fabricated that were able to perform on-chip beam rotation through varying angles, or manipulate polarization state of propagating light for target wavelengths. We also demonstrated SPIM-WG mode converters that provide arbitrary adiabatic mode conversion with high efficiency between symmetric and asymmetric non-uniform modes; examples include circular, elliptical modes and asymmetric modes from ppKTP waveguides which are generally applied in frequency conversion and quantum light sources. Created inside optical glass, these waveguides and devices have the capability to operate across ultra-broad bands from visible to infrared wavelengths. The compatibility with optical fibre also paves the way toward packaged photonic integrated circuitry, which usually needs input and output fibre connections.
Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Physics - Optics
  • Physics - Applied Physics


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