Optical reflectometry of radiation damage in ion-implanted silicon

P. L. Swart, H. Aharoni, B. M. Lacquet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Reflectivity vs dose experiments were performed by implanting 31P+ into polished single crystal Si substrates at a constant ion energy of 50 keV and a dose range of 1 × 1014 to 5 × 1015 cm-2. The measured reflectivity of the wafers at λ 632.8 nm changed from the pre-implanted value of 33.6% to a maximum of 42.5% at a dose of 1 × 1015 cm-2. Three major regions were observed on the R vs N curve. In the low dose region (N < 3 × 1014 cm-2) only small changes in the reflectivity are noticeable. In the intermediate region (4 × 1014 to 8 × 1014 cm-2) the reflectivity increases rapidly and monotonically with dose. In the third section of the curve (N > 8 × 1014 cm-2) the reflectivity remains at its high value, decreasing only slightly with increasing dose. Three sets of experiments were also performed of reflectivity vs implantation energy. For each set, the implantation energies were varied in steps between 50 keV and 200 keV, keeping the dose constant. The three regions selected, namely 1.2 × 1014, 5.5 × 1014 and 2 × 1015 cm-2, are representative of the three regions identified in the R vs N curve. Three distinctly different curves are obtained for the three dose regions. The low and the high dose curves show only small variations as a function of energy, and oscillate around the 50 keV values. Above 180 keV the high dose curve approaches the low dose curve. The reflectivity at the intermediate dose exhibits rapid changes in the region 50-100 keV, and also approaches the low dose curve at high energies. The experimental results are modeled by means of a multilayer optical model, assuming the existence of a critical ion concentration for complete amorphization of a continuous layer in the host crystal. A non-linear least-squares procedure is employed in order to fit the theoretical reflectivity curve to the experimental observations. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is obtained, with the optical constants and the profile parameters as output.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-371
Number of pages7
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1985
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation


Dive into the research topics of 'Optical reflectometry of radiation damage in ion-implanted silicon'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this