Overshoot dependence on the cross-shock potential

Michael Gedalin, Xiaoyan Zhou, Christopher T. Russell, Vassilis Angelopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Coherent downstream oscillations of the magnetic field in shocks are produced due to the coherent ion gyration and quasiperiodic variations of the ion pressure. The amplitude and the positions of the pressure maxima and minima depend on the cross-shock potential and upstream ion temperature. Two critical cross-shock potentials are defined: the critical gyration potential (CGP), which separates the cases of increase or decrease in the component of the velocity of the distribution center along the shock normal, and the critical reflection potential (CRP), above which ion reflection becomes significant. In a weak, very low upstream kineticto-magnetic pressure ratio, ß, the shocks' CRP exceeds the CGP. For potentials below the CGP, the first downstream maximum of the magnetic field is shifted farther downstream and is larger than the second maximum. For higher potentials, the first maximum occurs just behind the ramp and is lower than the second maximum. With the increase in the upstream temperature, the CGP exceeds the CRP. For potentials below the CRP, the effects of ion reflection are negligible and the shock profile is similar to that of very low-ß shocks. If the potential exceeds the CRP, ion reflection is significant, the magnetic field increase toward the overshoot becomes steeper, and the largest peak occurs at the downstream edge of the ramp.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-26
Number of pages10
JournalAnnales Geophysicae
Issue number1
StatePublished - 3 Jan 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Geology
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Overshoot dependence on the cross-shock potential'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this