TY - JOUR

T1 - Parametric equations to study and predict lower-limb joint kinematics and kinetics during human walking and slow running on slopes

AU - Rabani, Anat Shkedy

AU - Mizrachi, Sarai

AU - Sawicki, Gregory S.

AU - Riemer, Raziel

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Shkedy Rabani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PY - 2022/8/1

Y1 - 2022/8/1

N2 - Comprehensive data sets for lower-limb kinematics and kinetics during slope walking and running are important for understanding human locomotion neuromechanics and energetics and may aid the design of wearable robots (e.g., exoskeletons and prostheses). Yet, this information is difficult to obtain and requires expensive experiments with human participants in a gait laboratory. This study thus presents an empirical mathematical model that predicts lower-limb joint kinematics and kinetics during human walking and running as a function of surface gradient and stride cycle percentage. In total, 9 males and 7 females (age: 24.56 ± 3.16 years) walked at a speed of 1.25 m/s at five surface gradients (-15%, -10%, 0%, +10%, +15%) and ran at a speed of 2.25 m/s at five different surface gradients (-10%, -5%, 0%, +5%, +10%). Joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated at each surface gradient. We then used a Fourier series to generate prediction equations for each speed’s slope (3 joints x 5 surface gradients x [angle, moment, mechanical power]), where the input was the percentage in the stride cycle. Next, we modeled the change in value of each Fourier series’ coefficients as a function of the surface gradient using polynomial regression. This enabled us to model lower-limb joint angle, moment, and power as functions of the slope and as stride cycle percentages. The average adjusted R2 for kinematic and kinetic equations was 0.92 ± 0.18. Lastly, we demonstrated how these equations could be used to generate secondary gait parameters (e.g., joint work) as a function of surface gradients. These equations could be used, for instance, in the design of exoskeletons for walking and running on slopes to produce trajectories for exoskeleton controllers or for educational purposes in gait studies.

AB - Comprehensive data sets for lower-limb kinematics and kinetics during slope walking and running are important for understanding human locomotion neuromechanics and energetics and may aid the design of wearable robots (e.g., exoskeletons and prostheses). Yet, this information is difficult to obtain and requires expensive experiments with human participants in a gait laboratory. This study thus presents an empirical mathematical model that predicts lower-limb joint kinematics and kinetics during human walking and running as a function of surface gradient and stride cycle percentage. In total, 9 males and 7 females (age: 24.56 ± 3.16 years) walked at a speed of 1.25 m/s at five surface gradients (-15%, -10%, 0%, +10%, +15%) and ran at a speed of 2.25 m/s at five different surface gradients (-10%, -5%, 0%, +5%, +10%). Joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated at each surface gradient. We then used a Fourier series to generate prediction equations for each speed’s slope (3 joints x 5 surface gradients x [angle, moment, mechanical power]), where the input was the percentage in the stride cycle. Next, we modeled the change in value of each Fourier series’ coefficients as a function of the surface gradient using polynomial regression. This enabled us to model lower-limb joint angle, moment, and power as functions of the slope and as stride cycle percentages. The average adjusted R2 for kinematic and kinetic equations was 0.92 ± 0.18. Lastly, we demonstrated how these equations could be used to generate secondary gait parameters (e.g., joint work) as a function of surface gradients. These equations could be used, for instance, in the design of exoskeletons for walking and running on slopes to produce trajectories for exoskeleton controllers or for educational purposes in gait studies.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85135431465&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0269061

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0269061

M3 - Article

C2 - 35925954

AN - SCOPUS:85135431465

SN - 1932-6203

VL - 17

JO - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

IS - 8 August

M1 - e0269061

ER -