Patterns of interaction between parents and 7-month-old boys at familial risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a comparison group were studied during a warm-up and two play episodes. The sample included 78 (47 at-risk, 31 comparison) mother-child and 45 (27 at-risk, 18 comparison) father-child dyads. A coding system developed by G. Kochanska (1997, 1998) was used. Infants in the risk group did not differ from the comparison group in the rate of emission of infant-related events. However, they received less adequate responsivity from both their fathers and their mothers to these events, and specifically to negative emotions or distress, than did the comparison group. Maternal psychopathology did not account for these findings. Mothers were more adequately responsive than were fathers, especially for physiological needs. The association between nonoptimal interaction in infancy and the development of ADHD is discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health