The present state of experimental and theoretical research on diluted magnetic insulators (thin oxide films doped with transition metals) is discussed. The fundamentally irremovable thermodynamic nonequilibrium character of these films makes it possible for long-range ferromagnetic order to be established in them or for a highly nonuniform multiphase state (superparamagnet) to form. In all cases a fundamental role is played by concomitant defects (oxygen vacancies, shallow donors and acceptors).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)