Perception of stiffness in laparoscopy - The fulcrum effect

Ilana Nisky, Felix Huang, Amit Milstein, Carla M. Pugh, Ferdinando A. Mussa-Ivaldi, Amir Karniel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

44 Scopus citations


We explored how the perception of stiffness can be distorted in Minimally Invasive Surgery. We combined a mechanical simulator with a haptic device, and implemented linear springs at the tip of the simulated laparoscopic device. To explore the influence of mechanical advantage on perception, we set different values of the ratio between internal and external length of the tool. We found that a nonsymmetrical ratio causes bias in the perceived stiffness when novice tangential probing is compared to radial probing. In contrast, haptic experts did not show similar perceptual bias.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMedicine Meets Virtual Reality 19
Subtitle of host publicationNextMed, MMVR 2012
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9781614990215
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2012
EventMedicine Meets Virtual Reality 19: NextMed, MMVR 2012 - Newport Beach, CA, United States
Duration: 9 Feb 201211 Feb 2012

Publication series

NameStudies in Health Technology and Informatics
ISSN (Print)0926-9630
ISSN (Electronic)1879-8365


ConferenceMedicine Meets Virtual Reality 19: NextMed, MMVR 2012
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityNewport Beach, CA


  • Fulcrum effect
  • Haptic
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Perception
  • Simulation
  • Stiffness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management


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