Performance evaluation of Fitbit Charge 3 and actigraphy vs. polysomnography: Sensitivity, specificity, and reliability across participants and nights

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Goal and aims: Compare the accuracy and reliability of sleep/wake classification between the Fitbit Charge 3 and the Micro Motionlogger actigraph when applying either the Cole-Kripke or Sadeh scoring algorithms. Accuracy was established relative to simultaneous Polysomnography recording. Focus technology: Fitbit Charge 3 and actigraphy. Reference technology: Polysomnography. Sample: Twenty-one university students (10 females). Design: Simultaneous Fitbit Charge 3, actigraphy, and polysomnography were recorded over 3 nights at the participants’ homes. Core analytics: Total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Additional analytics and exploratory analyses: Variability of specificity and negative predictive value across subjects and across nights. Core outcomes: Fitbit Charge 3 and actigraphy using the Cole-Kripke or Sadeh algorithms exhibited similar sensitivity in classifying sleep segments relative to polysomnography (sensitivity of 0.95, 0.96, and 0.95, respectively). Fitbit Charge 3 was significantly more accurate in classifying wake segments (specificity of 0.69, 0.33, and 0.29, respectively). Fitbit Charge 3 also exhibited significantly higher positive predictive value than actigraphy (0.99 vs. 0.97 and 0.97, respectively) and a negative predictive value that was significantly higher only relative to the Sadeh algorithm (0.41 vs. 0.25, respectively). Important additional outcomes: Fitbit Charge 3 exhibited significantly lower standard deviation in specificity values across subjects and negative predictive value across nights. Core conclusion: This study demonstrates that Fitbit Charge 3 is more accurate and reliable in identifying wake segments than the examined FDA-approved Micro Motionlogger actigraphy device. The results also highlight the need to create devices that record and save raw multi-sensor data, which are necessary for developing open-source sleep or wake classification algorithms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)407-416
Number of pages10
JournalSleep Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023


  • Accuracy
  • Actigraphy
  • Consumer sleep technology
  • Performance evaluation
  • Polysomnography
  • Wearable sleep trackers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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