Persistence and Subtype Stability of ADHD Among Substance Use Disorder Treatment Seekers

Sharlene Kaye, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Geurt van de Glind, Frances R. Levin, Stephen V. Faraone, Steve Allsop, Louisa Degenhardt, Franz Moggi, Csaba Barta, Maija Konstenius, Johan Franck, Arvid Skutle, Eli Torild Bu, Maarten W.J. Koeter, Zsolt Demetrovics, Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Robert A. Schoevers, Katelijne van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Pieter Jan Carpentier, Geert DomSofie Verspreet, Cleo L. Crunelle, Jesse T. Young, Susan Carruthers, Joanne Cassar, Melina Fatséas, Marc Auriacombe, Brian Johnson, Matthew Dunn, Ortal Slobodin, Wim van den Brink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine ADHD symptom persistence and subtype stability among substance use disorder (SUD) treatment seekers. Method: In all, 1,276 adult SUD treatment seekers were assessed for childhood and adult ADHD using Conners’ Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; CAADID). A total of 290 (22.7%) participants met CAADID criteria for childhood ADHD and comprise the current study sample. Results: Childhood ADHD persisted into adulthood in 72.8% (n = 211) of cases. ADHD persistence was significantly associated with a family history of ADHD, and the presence of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. The combined subtype was the most stable into adulthood (78.6%) and this stability was significantly associated with conduct disorder and past treatment of ADHD. Conclusion: ADHD is highly prevalent and persistent among SUD treatment seekers and is associated with the more severe phenotype that is also less likely to remit. Routine screening and follow-up assessment for ADHD is indicated to enhance treatment management and outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1438-1453
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Attention Disorders
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • ADHD
  • persistence
  • substance related disorders
  • subtypes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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