Piezoelectricity in the human pineal gland

Sidney B. Lang, Andrew A. Marino, Garry Berkovic, Marjorie Fowler, Kenneth D. Abreo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Melatonin secretion by the pineal gland has been reported to be affected by exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In an initial investigation to determine if calcifications commonly found in the pineal gland could respond to EMFs by a transducer mechanism, studies were conducted to ascertain if pineal tissues were piezoelectric. Second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements showed that pineal tissues contained noncentrosymmetric crystals, thus proving the presence of piezoelectricity. Both mulberry-like and faceted crystalline calcifications were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Some of the calcifications had compositions similar to that of hydroxyapatite; others contained a high concentration of aluminum.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-195
Number of pages5
JournalBioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Dec 1996


  • Aluminum
  • Calcification
  • Crystals
  • Electromagnetic fields
  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
  • Second harmonic generation (SHG)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry


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