Policing is a controversial issue in diverse societies where cultures, religions and competing national identities challenge the existing order, and where the police have yet to develop the capabilities to engage with diversity and overcome its own biases and prejudices. Literature and experience point to two central problems of policy with regard to minority relations that can be described as ‘under-policing’ and ‘over-policing’. Thus, minorities can suffer from police neglect of their neighbourhoods, from an aggressive police approach or, at times, from both. As a result, the police can have a legitimacy problem vis-à-vis minority groups that may undermine its efficacy. This research, based on interviews conducted with Canadian police officers and documents collected, identifies three interrelated issues in police adaptation to a multicultural setting: recruitment and training, practices and community involvement.