Polymeric carbon nitrides and related metal-free materials for energy and environmental applications

Jesús Barrio, Michael Volokh, Menny Shalom

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

140 Scopus citations


Carbon nitride polymers have emerged as a new class of materials for a wide range of applications such as photo- and electro-catalysis, sensors, bioimaging and more due to their chemical, photophysical and catalytic properties as well as their low-price, facile synthesis and high stability under harsh chemical conditions. In this review we begin with a broad overview of carbon-based materials, arriving at the focus of this review, polymeric carbon nitrides (CNs). After a brief overview of applications, we delve into their various synthetic methods, with an emphasis on achieving control on the nanoscale features of this intriguing polymeric semiconductor. The main synthetic pathways include co-polymerization at various stages, templating, an ionothermal pathway and harnessing of supramolecular pre-organization, which are discussed in detail along with CN growth and deposition on substrates. Finally, we give our perspectives on the evolution of this field, the current limitations, and elaboration of achievable control over the chemical composition, the electronic structure and the morphology of this family of materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11075-11116
Number of pages42
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Issue number22
StatePublished - 14 Jun 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science


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