Pomegranate Juice Polyphenols Induce Macrophage Death via Apoptosis as Opposed to Necrosis Induced by Free Radical Generation: A Central Role for Oxidative Stress

Oren Rom, Nina Volkova, Sukhendu Nandi, Raz Jelinek, Michael Aviram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

At high concentrations, polyphenols induce cell death, and the polyphenols-rich pomegranate juice (PJ), known for its antioxidative/antiatherogenic properties, can possibly affect cell death, including macrophage death involved in atherogenesis. In the present study, apoptotic/necrotic macrophage death was analyzed in J774A.1 macrophages and in peritoneal macrophages isolated from atherosclerotic apoE-/- mice treated with PJ. The effects of PJ were compared with those of the free radical generator 2, 2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Both PJ and AAPH significantly increased J774A.1 macrophage death; however, flow cytometric and microscopic analyses using annexin V/propidium iodide revealed that PJ increased the early apoptosis of the macrophage dose dependently (up to 2.5-fold, P < 0.01), whereas AAPH caused dose-dependent increases in late apoptosis/necrosis (up to 12-fold, P < 0.001). Unlike PJ, AAPH-induced macrophage death was associated with increased intracellular oxidative stress (up to 7-fold, P < 0.001) and with lipid stress demonstrated by triglyceride accumulation (up to 3-fold, P < 0.01) and greater chromatic vesicle response to culture medium (up to 5-fold, P < 0.001). Accordingly, recombinant paraoxonase 1, which hydrolyzes oxidized lipids, attenuated macrophage death induced by AAPH, but not by PJ. Similar apoptotic and oxidative effects were found in macrophages from apoE-/- mice treated with PJ or AAPH. As macrophage apoptotic/necrotic death has considerable impact on atherosclerosis progression, these findings may provide novel mechanisms for the antiatherogenicity of PJ.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-114
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Volume68
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2016

Keywords

  • apoptosis
  • macrophage
  • necrosis
  • oxidative stress
  • polyphenols
  • pomegranate

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