The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patterns of use of essential health services (EHS), health-seeking behaviors, and population health and wellbeing in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) from the perspective of its adult population. A population-based survey was implemented in the FBiH in December 2020 on a sample of 1068 adults. Overall, 64% of respondents received care, significantly more being women (67% vs. 61%, p = 0.046), those with a chronic disease (CD) (75% vs. 65%, p < 0.001), and of an older age (58% in 18-34 vs. 67% in older, p = 0.031). These groups also postponed care more often (39% in 55+ vs. 31% in 18-34 years old, p = 0.01; 55% with CD vs. 31% without, p < 0.001; and 43% in females vs. 32% males, p < 0.001). Main reasons for postponing care were lack of available appointments and fear of infection. The presence of a CD was the strongest predictor of need, access, and disruptions of health care. Respondents reported increased expenses for medicines (40%) and health services (30%). The findings of the survey add user insights into EHS disruptions to existing health statistics and other data and may be used to inform strategies for mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on the disruption of health care services, strengthening health system preparedness and building resilience for future emergencies.