## Abstract

According to the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin (BGV) theorem an expanding region of spacetime cannot be extended to the past beyond some boundary ℬ. Therefore, the inflationary universe must have had some kind of beginning. However, the BGW theorem says nothing about the boundary conditions on ℬ, or even about its location. Here we present a single-scalar field model of the Two-Measure Theory, where the non-Riemannian volume element ϒ d ^{4} x is present in the action. As a result of the model dynamics, an upper bound φ _{0} of admissible values of the scalar field φ appears, which sets the position of ℬ in the form of a spacelike hypersurface ϒ(x) = 0 with a boundary condition: ϒ → 0^{+} as φ → φ _{0}^{-}. A detailed study has established that if the initial kinetic energy density ρ _{kin}^{(in)} prevails over initial gradient energy density ρ _{grad}^{(in)} then there is an interval of initial values φ _{in}^{(min)} ≤ φ _{in} < φ _{0}, where ρ _{kin}^{(in)} and ρ _{grad}^{(in)} cannot exceed the potential energy density and hence the initial conditions necessary for the onset of inflation are satisfied. It is shown that under almost all possible left-handed boundary conditions on ℬ, that is where ϒ → 0^{-}, the metric tensor in the Einstein frame has a jump discontinuity on ℬ, so the Christoffel connection coefficients are not defined on the spacelike hypersurface ϒ = 0. Thus, if φ _{in}^{(min)} ≤ φ _{in} < φ _{0} and ρ _{kin}^{(in)} > ρ _{grad}^{(in)}, then there was an inflationary stage in the history of our Universe and the congruence of timelike geodesics cannot be extended to the past beyond the hypersurface ϒ = 0.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 007 |

Journal | Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics |

Volume | 2023 |

Issue number | 5 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 May 2023 |

## Keywords

- cosmic singularity
- inflation
- initial conditions and eternal universe
- modified gravity

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Astronomy and Astrophysics