Purpose: To determine the immediate post-operative course and outcome of pediatric patients with complicated acute mastoiditis (CAM) following surgical treatment. Methods: A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with CAM who underwent mastoid surgery during 2012–2019 in a tertiary care university hospital. 33 patients, divided into 2 groups: 17 patients with sub-periosteal abscess (SPA) alone–single complication group (SCG) and 16 patients with SPA and additional complications: sigmoid sinus thrombosis (SST), peri-sinus fluid/abscess, epidural/subdural abscess, and acute meningitis-multiple complications group (MCG). Results: 33 patients belong to the SCG 17(51%) and 16(49%) belonged to the MCG, respectively. 6/17(35.3%) SCG patients experienced POF vs. 12/16(75%) in the MCG (P = 0.012). At post-operative day 2 (POD2), 10/13(77%) febrile patients belonged to MCG and 3/13(23%) to SCG (P = 0.013). POF was recorded until POD6 in both groups. Seven patients, all from MCG with POF, underwent second imaging with no new findings; a total of 18 positive cultures were reported. Fusobacterium necrophorum counted for 8/18(44.5%) of all positive cultures, 7/9(77.8%) in the MCG vs. 1/9(11.1%) in the SCG, P = 0.004. Streptococcus pneumoniae was reported only in SCG (5/9, 55.5%, vs. 0/9, P = 0.008). Conclusion: Post-mastoidectomy fever due to CAM is not unusual and seems to be a benign condition for the first 5–6 days, following surgery. MCG patients are more prone to develop POF. F. necrophorum is more likely to be associated with MCG, and S. pneumoniae is common in SCG patients.
- Post-operative fever
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