Posttreatment variables improve outcome prediction after intra-arterial therapy for acute ischemic stroke

Shyam Prabhakaran, Tudor G. Jovin, Ashis H. Tayal, Muhammad S. Hussain, Thanh N. Nguyen, Kevin N. Sheth, John B. Terry, Raul G. Nogueira, Anat Horev, Dheeraj Gandhi, Dolora Wisco, Brenda A. Glenn, Bryan Ludwig, Paul F. Clemmons, Carolyn A. Cronin, Melissa Tian, David Liebeskind, Osama O. Zaidat, Alicia C. Castonguay, Coleman MartinNils Mueller-Kronast, Joey D. English, Italo Linfante, Timothy W. Malisch, Rishi Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: There are multiple clinical and radiographic factors that influence outcomes after endovascular reperfusion therapy (ERT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We sought to derive and validate an outcome prediction score for AIS patients undergoing ERT based on readily available pretreatment and posttreatment factors. Methods: The derivation cohort included 511 patients with anterior circulation AIS treated with ERT at 10 centers between September 2009 and July 2011. The prospective validation cohort included 223 patients with anterior circulation AIS treated in the North American Solitaire Acute Stroke registry. Multivariable logistic regression identified predictors of good outcome (modified Rankin score ≤2 at 3 months) in the derivation cohort; model β coefficients were used to assign points and calculate a risk score. Discrimination was tested using C statistics with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the derivation and validation cohorts. Calibration was assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and plots of observed to expected outcomes. We assessed the net reclassification improvement for the derived score compared to the Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE) score. Subgroup analysis in patients with pretreatment Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) and posttreatment final infarct volume measurements was also performed to identify whether these radiographic predictors improved the model compared to simpler models. Results: Good outcome was noted in 186 (36.4%) and 100 patients (44.8%) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Combining readily available pretreatment and posttreatment variables, we created a score (acronym: SNARL) based on the following parameters: symptomatic hemorrhage [2 points: none, hemorrhagic infarction (HI)1-2 or parenchymal hematoma (PH) type 1; 0 points: PH2], baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (3 points: 0-10; 1 point: 11-20; 0 points: >20), age (2 points: <60 years; 1 point: 60-79 years; 0 points: >79 years), reperfusion (3 points: Thrombolysis In Cerebral Ischemia score 2b or 3) and location of clot (1 point: M2; 0 points: M1 or internal carotid artery). The SNARL score demonstrated good discrimination in the derivation (C statistic 0.79, 95% CI 0.75-0.83) and validation cohorts (C statistic 0.74, 95% CI 0.68-0.81) and was superior to the THRIVE score (derivation cohort: C statistic 0.65, 95% CI 0.60-0.70; validation cohort: C-statistic 0.59, 95% CI 0.52-0.67; p < 0.01 in both cohorts) but was inferior to a score that included age, ASPECTS, reperfusion status and final infarct volume (C statistic 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91; p = 0.04). Compared with the THRIVE score, the SNARL score resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 34.8%. Conclusions: Among AIS patients treated with ERT, pretreatment scores such as the THRIVE score provide only fair prognostic information. Inclusion of posttreatment variables such as reperfusion and symptomatic hemorrhage greatly influences outcome and results in improved outcome prediction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)356-363
Number of pages8
JournalCerebrovascular Diseases
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Prediction tools
  • Reperfusion
  • Revascularization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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